About|the form of communication}}
(1805), a Romanticism
depiction by Jacques-Louis David
during the Napoleonic Wars
the personification of the United States
File Trotsky-Saint George allusion.png
period, depicting Red Army
leader Leon Trotsky
as a modern-day Saint George
of communism slaying the dragon, which with the top hat
with the word "counterrevolution
is what this person suffering from a Genetic disorder
costs the Peoples community during his lifetime. Fellow citizen, that is your money too. Read Neues Volk
, the monthly magazine of the Office of Racial Policy
of the Nazi Party
promoting harmony between Japanese people Chinese people
and Manchu people
The caption, written from right to left, says: "With the help of Japan, China, and Manchukuo, the world can be in peace." The flags shown are, left to right: the flag of Manchukuo
the flag of Japan
the "Five Races Under One Union
is a form of communication aimed towards social influence
the attitude of the community toward some cause or position by presenting only one side of an argument. Propaganda statements may be partly false and partly true. Propaganda is usually repeated and dispersed over a wide variety of media in order to create the chosen result in audience attitudes.
As opposed to Objectivity (journalism)
providing information, propaganda, in its most basic sense, presents information primarily to influence an audience. Propaganda often presents facts selectively (thus possibly lying by omission
to encourage a particular synthesis, or uses loaded messages to produce an emotional rather than rational response to the information presented. The desired result is a change of the attitude toward the subject in the target audience to further a political, religious or commercial agenda. Propaganda can be used as a form of ideological or commercial warfare.
While the term propaganda has acquired a strongly negative connotation by association with its most manipulative and jingoistic
examples (e.g. Nazi propaganda
used to justify the Holocaust), propaganda in its original sense was neutral, and could refer to uses that were generally benign or innocuous, such as public health recommendations, signs encouraging citizens to participate in a census or election, or messages encouraging persons to report crimes to law enforcement, among others.
The term comes from modern Latin.
[Oxford dictionary ]
Originally this word derived from a new administrative body of the Catholic Church (Congregation (Roman Curia)
created in 1622, called the [[Congregation for the Evangelization of Peoples|Congregatio de Propaganda Fide]]
(Congregation for Propagating the Faith
, or informally simply Propaganda
[Diggs-Brown, Barbara (2011) http://books.google.com/books?id7c0ycySng4YC&pgPA48&lpgPA48 Strategic Public Relations: Audience Focused Practice p. 48] [http://www.etymonline.com/index.php?termpropaganda]
Its activity consisted was aimed at "propagating" the Catholic faith in non-Catholic countries.
From the 1790s, the term began being used also for propaganda
in secular activities.
The term began taking a pejorative connotation in the mid-19th century, when it was used in the political sphere.
Defining propaganda has always been a problem. The main difficulties have involved differentiating propaganda from other types of persuasion
and avoiding an "if they do it then thats propaganda, while if we do it then thats information and education" bias
d approach. Garth Jowett and Victoria ODonnell have provided a concise, workable definition of the term: "Propaganda is the deliberate, systematic attempt to shape perceptions, manipulate cognitions, and direct behavior to achieve a response that furthers the desired intent of the propagandist."
[Garth Jowett and Victoria ODonnell, Propaganda and Persuasion 4th ed. Sage Publications, p. 7]
More comprehensive is the description by Richard Alan Nelson: "Propaganda is neutrally defined as a systematic form of purposeful persuasion that attempts to influence the emotions, attitudes, opinions, and actions of specified target audiences for ideology
political or commercial purposes through the controlled transmission of one-sided messages (which may or may not be factual) via mass and direct media channels. A propaganda organization employs propagandists who engage in propagandism—the applied creation and distribution of such forms of persuasion."
[Richard Alan Nelson, A Chronology and Glossary of Propaganda in the United States(1996) pp. 232–233]
Both definitions focus on the communicative process involved — or more precisely, on the purpose of the process, and allow "propaganda" to be considered objectively and then interpreted as positive or negative behavior depending on the perspective of the viewer or listener.
Propaganda is generally an appeal to emotion, not intellect.It shares techniques with advertising
and public relations
each of which can be thought of as propaganda that promotes a commercial product or shapes the perception of an organization, person, or brand. In post–World War II usage the word "propaganda" more typically refers to political or nationalism
uses of these techniques or to the promotion of a set of ideas, since the term had gained a pejorative meaning. The refusal phenomenon was eventually to be seen in politics itself by the substitution of "political marketing" and other designations for "political propaganda".
Propaganda was often used to influence opinions and beliefs on religious issues, particularly during the split between the Roman Catholic Church
and the Protestantism
Propaganda has become more common in political
contexts, in particular to refer to certain efforts sponsored by governments, political groups, but also often covert interests. In the early 20th century, propaganda was exemplified in the form of party slogans. Also in the early 20th century the term propaganda
was used by the founders of the nascent public relations
industry to refer to their activities. This usage died out around the time of World War II, as the industry started to avoid the word, given the pejorative connotation it had acquired.
Literally translated from the Latin gerundive
as "things that must be disseminated", in some cultures the term is neutral or even positive, while in others the term has acquired a strong negative connotation. The connotations of the term "propaganda" can also vary over time. For example, in Portuguese language
and some Spanish language
speaking countries, particularly in the Southern Cone
the word "propaganda" usually refers to the most common manipulative media — "advertising".
In English, propaganda
was originally a neutral term for the dissemination of information in favor of any given cause. During the 20th century, however, the term acquired a thoroughly negative meaning in western countries, representing the intentional dissemination of often false, but certainly "compelling" claims to support or justify political actions or ideologies. This redefinition arose becauseboth the Soviet Union
s government under Hitler
admitted explicitly to using propaganda favoring, respectively, communism
in all forms of public expression. As these ideologies were repugnant to liberal western societies, the negative feelings toward them came to be projected into the word "propaganda" itself. However, Harold Lasswell
observed, as early as 1928, that, "Propaganda has become an epithet of contempt and hate, and the propagandists have sought protective coloration in such names as public relations council, specialist in public education, public relations adviser. "
[pp. 260–261, "The Function of the Propagandist", International Journal of Ethics 38 (no. 3): pp. 258–268.]
File Is this tomorrow.jpg
propaganda in a 1947 comic book published by the Catechetical Guild Educational Society warning of "the dangers of a Communist takeover".]]
Roderick Hindery argues
[Hindery, Roderick R., Indoctrination and Self-deception or Free and Critical Thought? (2001)]
that propaganda exists on the political left, and right, and in mainstream centrist parties. Hindery further argues that debates about most social issues can be productively revisited in the context of asking "what is or is not propaganda?" Not to be overlooked is the link between propaganda, indoctrination, and terrorism/counterterrorism. He argues that threats to destroy are often as socially disruptive as physical devastation itself.
Propaganda also has much in common with public information
campaigns by governments, which are intended to encourage or discourage certain forms of behavior (such as wearing seat belts, not smoking, not littering and so forth). Again, the emphasis is more political in propaganda. Propaganda can take the form of leaflet
, posters, TV and radio broadcasts and can also extend to any other Mass media
In the case of the United States, there is also an important legal (imposed by law) distinction between advertising (a type of overt propaganda
and what the Government Accountability Office (GAO), an arm of the United States Congress, refers to as "covert propaganda".
Journalistic theory generally holds that news items should be objective, giving the reader an accurate background and analysis of the subject at hand. On the other hand, advertisements evolved from the traditional commercial advertisements to include also a new type in the form of paid articles or broadcasts disguised as news. These generally present an issue in a very subjective and often misleading light, primarily meant to persuade rather than inform. Normally they use only subtle propaganda techniques
and not the more obvious ones used in traditional commercial advertisements. If the reader believes that a paid advertisement is in fact a news item, the message the advertiser is trying to communicate will be more easily "believed" or "internalized".
Such advertisements are considered obvious examples of "covert" propaganda because they take on the appearance of objective information rather than the appearance of propaganda, which is misleading. Federal law specifically mandates that any advertisement appearing in the format of a news item must state that the item is in fact a paid advertisement.
The propagandist seeks to change the way people understand an issue or situation for the purpose of changing their actions and expectations in ways that are desirable to the interest group. Propaganda, in this sense, serves as a corollary to censorship
in which the same purpose is achieved, not by filling peoples minds with approved information, but by preventing people from being confronted with opposing points of view. What sets propaganda apart from other forms of advocacy is the willingness of the propagandist to change peoples understanding through deception and confusion rather than persuasion and understanding. The leaders of an organization know the information to be one sided or untrue, but this may not be true for the rank and file members who help to disseminate the propaganda.
More in line with the religious roots of the term, it is also used widely in the debates about new religious movement
(NRMs), both by people who defend them and by people who oppose them. The latter pejoratively call these NRMs cult
. Anti-cult movement
and Christian countercult movement
accuse the leaders of what they consider cults of using propaganda extensively to recruit followers and keep them. Some social scientists, such as the late Jeffrey Hadden, and CESNUR
affiliated scholars accuse ex-members of "cults" who became vocal critics and the anti-cult movement
of making these unusual religious movements look bad without sufficient reasons.
File Mussolini Propaganda.jpg addressed the crowd in a poster promoted by the Propaganda of Fascist Italy ]]
Propaganda is a powerful weapon in war; it is used to dehumanize and create hatred toward a supposed enemy, either internal or external, by creating a false image in the mind. This can be done by using derogatory or racist terms, avoiding some words or by making allegations of enemy atrocities. Most propaganda wars require the home population to feel the enemy has inflicted an injustice, which may be fictitious or may be based on facts. The home population must also decide that the cause of their nation is just.
Propaganda is also one of the methods used in psychological warfare which may also involve false flag operations. The term propaganda may also refer to false information meant to reinforce the mindsets of people who already believe as the propagandist wishes. The assumption is that, if people believe something false, they will constantly be assailed by doubts. Since these doubts are unpleasant (see cognitive dissonance , people will be eager to have them extinguished, and are therefore receptive to the reassurances of those in power. For this reason propaganda is often addressed to people who are already sympathetic to the agenda This process of reinforcement uses an individuals predisposition to self-select "agreeable" information sources as a mechanism for maintaining control.
File Britannialion.jpg arm-in-arm with Uncle Sam symbolizes the British-American alliance in World War I.]]
Propaganda can be classified according to the source and nature of the message. [[White propaganda]] enerally comes from an openly identified source, and is characterized by gentler methods of persuasion, such as standard public relations techniques and one-sided presentation of an argument. [[Black propaganda]] s identified as being from one source, but is in fact from another. This is most commonly to disguise the true origins of the propaganda, be it from an enemy country or from an organization with a negative public image. Grey propaganda is propaganda without any identifiable source or author. A major application of grey propaganda is making enemies believe falsehoods using straw argument : As phase one, to make someone believe "A", one releases as grey propaganda "B", the opposite of "A". In phase two, "B" is discredited using some strawman The enemy will then assume "A" to be true.
In scale, these different types of propaganda can also be defined by the potential of true and correct information to compete with the propaganda. For example, opposition to white propaganda is often readily found and may slightly discredit the propaganda source. Opposition to grey propaganda, when revealed (often by an inside source), may create some level of public outcry. Opposition to black propaganda is often unavailable and may be dangerous to reveal, because public cognizance of black propaganda tactics and sources would undermine or backfire the very campaign the black propagandist supported.
Propaganda may be administered in insidious ways. For instance, disparaging disinformation about the history of certain groups or foreign countries may be encouraged or tolerated in the educational system. Since few people actually double-check what they learn at school, such disinformation will be repeated by journalists as well as parents, thus reinforcing the idea that the disinformation item is really a "well-known fact", even though no one repeating the myth is able to point to an authoritative source. The disinformation is then recycled in the media and in the educational system, without the need for direct governmental intervention on the media. Such permeating propaganda may be used for political goals: by giving citizens a false impression of the quality or policies of their country, they may be incited to reject certain proposals or certain remarks or ignore the experience of others.
In the Soviet Union during the Second World War, the propaganda designed to encourage civilians was controlled by Stalin, who insisted on a heavy-handed style that educated audiences easily saw was inauthentic. On the other hand the unofficial rumours about German atrocities were well founded and convincing.
[Karel C. Berkhoff, Motherland in Danger: Soviet Propaganda during World War II(2012) http://www.amazon.com/Motherland-Danger-Soviet-Propaganda-during/dp/0674049241/ excerpt and text search]]
File Anti-capitalism color.gif propaganda]]
Common media for transmitting propaganda messages include news reports, government reports, historical revision, junk science books, leaflets, propaganda film radio, television, and posters. Less common nowadays are letter post envelopes examples of which of survive from the time of the American Civil War. (Connecticut Historical Society; Civil War Collections; Covers.) In principle any thing that appears on a poster can be produced on a reduced scale on a pocket-style envelope with corresponding proportions to the poster. The case of radio and television, propaganda can exist on news, current-affairs or talk-show segments, as advertising or public-service announce "spots" or as long-running advertorials Propaganda campaigns often follow a strategic transmission pattern to indoctrinate the target group. This may begin with a simple transmission such as a leaflet dropped from a plane or an advertisement. Generally these messages will contain directions on how to obtain more information, via a web site, hot line, radio program, etc. (as it is seen also for selling purposes among other goals). The strategy intends to initiate the individual from information recipient to information seeker through reinforcement, and then from information seeker to opinion leader through indoctrination.
A number of techniques based in social psychology research are used to generate propaganda. Many of these same techniques can be found under Fallacy since propagandists use arguments that, while sometimes convincing, are not necessarily valid.
Some time has been spent analyzing the means by which the propaganda messages are transmitted. That work is important but it is clear that information dissemination strategies become propaganda strategies only when coupled with propagandistic messages Identifying these messages is a necessary prerequisite to study the methods by which those messages are spread. Below are a number of techniques for generating propaganda:
File Ca-cornucopia of the world.jpg
:A Latin phrase that has come to mean attacking ones opponent, as opposed to attacking their arguments.
:This argument approach uses tireless repetition of an idea. An idea, especially a simple slogan, that is repeated enough times, may begin to be taken as the truth. This approach works best when media sources are limited or controlled by the propagator.
;Appeal to authority
:Appeals to authority cite prominent figures to support a position, idea, argument, or course of action.
;Appeal to fear
:Appeals to fear and seeks to build support by instilling anxieties and panic in the general population, for example, Joseph Goebbels exploited Theodore Kaufmans [[Germany Must Perish!]]to claim that the Allies sought the extermination of the German people.
;Appeal to prejudice
:Using loaded or emotive terms to attach value or moral goodness to believing the proposition. Used in biased or misleading ways.
;argumentum ad populum
:Bandwagon and "inevitable-victory" appeals attempt to persuade the target audience to join in and take the course of action that "everyone else is taking".
:Invites those not already on the bandwagon to join those already on the road to certain victory. Those already or at least partially on the bandwagon are reassured that staying aboard is their best course of action.
;Join the crowd
:This technique reinforces peoples natural desire to be on the winning side. This technique is used to convince the audience that a program is an expression of an irresistible mass movement and that it is in their best interest to join.
File mexicospankingkkk.jpg 1928.]]
:The type of propaganda that deals with celebrities or depicts attractive, happy people. This suggests if people buy a product or follow a certain ideology, they too will be happy or successful.
:The repeated articulation of a complex of events that justify subsequent action. The descriptions of these events have elements of truth, and the "big lie" generalizations merge and eventually supplant the publics accurate perception of the underlying events. After World War I the German Stab in the back explanation of the cause of their defeat became a justification for Nazi re-militarization and revanchist aggression.
:Presenting only two choices, with the product or idea being propagated as the better choice. For example: "You're either with us, or against us ..."
:All vertebrates, including humans, respond to classical conditioning That is, if object A is always present when object B is present and object B causes a physical reaction (e.g., disgust, pleasure) then we will when presented with object A when object B is not present, we will experience the same feelings.
:People desire to be consistent. Suppose a pollster finds that a certain group of people hates his candidate for senator but loves actor A. They use actor As endorsement of their candidate to change peoples minds because people cannot tolerate inconsistency. They are forced to either to dislike the actor or like the candidate.
:"The "plain folks" or "common man" approach attempts to convince the audience that the propagandists positions reflect the common sense of the people. It is designed to win the confidence of the audience by communicating in the common manner and style of the target audience. Propagandists use ordinary language and mannerisms (and clothe their message in face-to-face and audiovisual communications) in attempting to identify their point of view with that of the average person. With the plain folks device, the propagandist can win the confidence of persons who resent or distrust foreign sounding, intellectual speech, words, or mannerisms."
[lt;/ref> For example, a politician speaking to a Southern United States crowd might incorporate words such as "Y'all and other colloquialism to create a perception of belonging.
;Cult of personality
:A cult of personality arises when an individual uses mass media to create an idealized and heroic public image, often through unquestioning flattery and praise. The hero personality then advocates the positions that the propagandist desires to promote. For example, modern propagandists hire popular personalities to promote their ideas and/or products.
:Making individuals from the opposing nation, from a different ethnic group, or those who support the opposing viewpoint appear to be subhuman (e.g., the Vietnam War era term "gooks" for Viet Cong aka Vietcong, or "VC", soldiers), worthless, or immoral, through suggestion or false accusations. Dehumanizing is also a termed used synonymously with demonizing, the latter usually serves as an aspect of the former.
File LibertyBond-WinsorMcCay.jpg urging Americans to buy Liberty Bond ]]
:This technique hopes to simplify the decision making process by using images and words to tell the audience exactly what actions to take, eliminating any other possible choices. Authority figures can be used to give the order, overlapping it with the Appeal to authority technique, but not necessarily. The Uncle Sam "I want you" image is an example of this technique.
:The creation or deletion of information from public records, in the purpose of making a false record of an event or the actions of a person or organization, including outright forgery of photographs, motion pictures, broadcasts, and sound recordings as well as printed documents.
:Is used to increase a persons latitude of acceptance. For example, if a salesperson wants to sell an item for $100 but the public is only willing to pay $50, the salesperson first offers the item at a higher price (e.g., $200) and subsequently reduces the price to $100 to make it seem like a good deal.
:The use of an event that generates euphoria or happiness, or using an appealing event to boost morale. Euphoria can be created by declaring a holiday, making luxury items available, or mounting a military parade with marching bands and patriotic messages.
;Fear, uncertainty, and doubt
:An attempt to influence public perception by disseminating negative and dubious/false information designed to undermine the credibility of their beliefs.
File SuomiNeito.png - personification of Finnish nationalism]]
:An attempt to justify an action on the grounds that doing so will make one more patriotic, or in some way benefit a country, group or idea the targeted audience supports.
:Often used by recruiters and salesmen. For example, a member of the opposite sex walks up to the victim and pins a flower or gives a small gift to the victim. The victim says thanks and now they have incurred a psychological debt to the perpetrator. The person eventually asks for a larger favor (e.g., a donation or to buy something far more expensive). The unwritten social contract between the victim and perpetrator causes the victim to feel obligated to reciprocate by agreeing to do the larger favor or buy the more expensive gift.
:Glittering generalities are emotionally appealing words that are applied to a product or idea, but present no concrete argument or analysis. This technique has also been referred to as the PT Barnum effect.
:A half-truth is a deceptive statement, which may come in several forms and includes some element of truth. The statement might be partly true, the statement may be totally true but only part of the whole truth, or it may utilize some deceptive element, such as improper punctuation, or double meaning, especially if the intent is to deceive, evade, blame or misrepresent the truth.
:A euphemism is used when the propagandist attempts to increase the perceived quality, credibility, or credence of a particular ideal. A dysphemism is used when the intent of the propagandist is to discredit, diminish the perceived quality, or hurt the perceived righteousness of the Mark. By creating a "label" or "category" or "faction" of a population, it is much easier to make an example of these larger bodies, because they can uplift or defame the Mark without actually incurring legal-defamation. Example: "Liberal" is a dysphemism intended to diminish the perceived credibility of a particular Mark. By taking a displeasing argument presented by a Mark, the propagandist can quote that person, and then attack "liberals" in an attempt to both (1) create a political battle-ax of unaccountable aggression and (2) diminish the quality of the Mark. If the propagandist uses the label on too-many perceivably credible individuals, muddying up the word can be done by broadcasting bad-examples of "liberals" into the media. Labeling can be thought of as a sub-set of Guilt by association another logical fallacy.
;Social judgment theory Latitudes of rejection, acceptance, and noncommitment
:If a persons message is outside the bounds of acceptance for an individual and group, most techniques will engender psychological reactance (simply hearing the argument will make the message even less acceptable). There are two techniques for increasing the bounds of acceptance. First, one can take a more even extreme position that will make more moderate positions seem more acceptable. This is similar to the Door-in-the-Face technique. Alternatively, one can moderate ones own position to the edge of the latitude of acceptance and then over time slowly move to the position that was previously.] [http://www.jamescmccroskey.com/publications/36.htm unacceptable message]]
File Murales Rivera - Ausbeutung durch die Spanier 1 perspective.jpg s political murals depict a modern interpretation of the Black Legend ]]
:Used to recruit members to a cult or ideology by having a group of individuals cut off a person from their existing social support and replace it entirely with members of the group who deliberately bombard the person with affection in an attempt to isolate the person from their prior beliefs and value system—see Milieu control
;Lie and deception
:Lying and deception can be the basis of many propaganda techniques including Ad Homimen arguments, Big-Lie, Defamation, Door-in-the-Face, Half-truth, Name-calling or any other technique that is based on dishonesty or deception. For example, many politicians have been found to frequently stretch or break the truth.
;Managing the news
:According to Adolf Hitler "The most brilliant propagandist technique will yield no success unless one fundamental principle is borne in mind constantly - it must confine itself to a few points and repeat them over and over." [lt;/ref>] [lt;/ref> This idea is consistent with the principle of classical conditioning as well as the idea of "Staying on Message."
File Die Osmanen.JPG 16th century]]
:An attempt to control the social environment and ideas through the use of social pressure
:Propagandists use the name-calling techniqueto incite fears and arouse prejudices in their hearers in the intent that the bad names will cause hearers to construct a negative opinion about a group or set of beliefs or ideas that the propagandist wants hearers to denounce. The method is intended to provoke conclusions about a matter apart from impartial examinations of facts. Name-calling is thus a substitute for rational, fact-based arguments against the an idea or belief on its own merits.] [http://mason.gmu.edu/~amcdonal/Propaganda%20Techniques.html Propaganda Techniques]]
;Obfuscation intentional vagueness, confusion
:Generalities are deliberately vague so that the audience may supply its own interpretations. The intention is to move the audience by use of undefined phrases, without analyzing their validity or attempting to determine their reasonableness or application. The intent is to cause people to draw their own interpretations rather than simply being presented with an explicit idea. In trying to "figure out" the propaganda, the audience forgoes judgment of the ideas presented. Their validity, reasonableness and application may still be considered.
;Defamation or [[Reductio ad Hitlerum]]
:This technique is used to persuade a target audience to disapprove of an action or idea by suggesting that the idea is popular with groups hated, feared, or held in contempt by the target audience. Thus if a group that supports a certain policy is led to believe that undesirable, Subversion or contemptible people support the same policy, then the members of the group may decide to change their original position. This is a form of bad logic, where a is said to include X, and b is said to include X, therefore, a b.
:Operant conditioning involves learning through imitation. For example, watching an appealing person buy products or endorse positions teaches a person to buy the product or endorse the position. Operant conditioning is the underlying principle behind the Ad Nauseam, Slogan and other repetition public relations campaigns.
:Favorable generalities are used to provide simple answers to complex social, political, economic, or military problems.
File Ballot1.jpg from [[Heroes of the Fiery Cross]]by Bishop Alma White published by the Pillar of Fire Church 1928 in Zarephath, NJ ]
:Enforced reduction of discussion by use of overly simplistic phrases or arguments (e.g., "There is no alternative to war.")
;Fallacy of quoting out of context
:Selectively editing quotes to change meanings—political documentaries designed to discredit an opponent or an opposing political viewpoint often make use of this technique.
:Individuals or groups may use favorable generalities to rationalize questionable acts or beliefs. Vague and pleasant phrases are often used to justify such actions or beliefs.
;Ignoratio elenchi Red herring
:Presenting data or issues that, while compelling, are irrelevant to the argument at hand, and then claiming that it validates the argument.
;Repetition (rhetorical device)
:This is the repeating of a certain symbol or slogan so that the audience remembers it. This could be in the form of a jingle or an image placed on nearly everything in the picture/scene. This also includes using subliminal phrases, images or other content in a piece of propaganda.
:Assigning blame to an individual or group, thus alleviating feelings of guilt (emotion) from responsible parties and/or distracting attention from the need to fix the problem for which blame is being assigned.
File Brasil ame-o ou deixe-o.png love it or leave it", often used during the Brazilian military government ]
:A slogan is a brief, striking phrase that may include labeling and stereotyping. Although slogans may be enlisted to support reasoned ideas, in practice they tend to act only as emotional appeals. Opponents of the USs invasion and occupation of Iraq use the slogan "blood for oil" to suggest that the invasion and its human losses was done to access Iraqs oil riches. On the other hand, supporters who argue that the US should continue to fight in Iraq use the slogan "cut and run" to suggest withdrawal is cowardly or weak.
:This technique attempts to arouse prejudices in an audience by labeling the object of the propaganda campaign as something the target audience fears, hates, loathes, or finds undesirable. For instance, reporting on a foreign country or social group may focus on the stereotypical traits that the reader expects, even though they are far from being representative of the whole country or group; such reporting often focuses on the anecdote In graphic propaganda, including war posters, this might include portraying enemies with stereotyped racial features.
:A straw man argument is an informal fallacy based on misrepresentation of an opponents position. To "attack a straw man" is to create the illusion of having refuted a proposition by substituting a superficially similar proposition (the "straw man"), and refuting it, without ever having actually refuted the original position.
:Testimonials are quotations, in or out of context, especially cited to support or reject a given policy, action, program, or personality. The reputation or the role (expert, respected public figure, etc.) of the individual giving the statement is exploited. The testimonial places the official sanction of a respected person or authority on a propaganda message. This is done in an effort to cause the target audience to identify itself with the authority or to accept the authoritys opinions and beliefs as its own.
File Konstantin Makovsky - The Bulgarian martyresses.jpg depicting the rape of Bulgaria women by Ottoman Empire troops during the suppression of the April Uprising a year earlier, served to mobilise public support for the Russo-Turkish War (1877–1878) waged with the proclaimed aim of liberating the Bulgarians.]]
;Third party technique
:Works on the principle that people are more willing to accept an argument from a seemingly independent source of information than from someone with a stake in the outcome. It is a marketing strategy commonly employed by Public Relations (PR) firms, that involves placing a premeditated message in the "mouth of the media." Third party technique can take many forms, ranging from the hiring of journalists to report the organization in a favorable light, to using scientists within the organization to present their perhaps prejudicial findings to the public. Frequently Astroturfing or front groups are used to deliver the message.
:Foreign governments, particularly those that own marketable commercial products or services, often promote their interests and positions through the advertising of those goods because the target audience is not only largely unaware of the forum as vehicle for foreign messaging but also willing to receive the message while in a mental state of absorbing information from advertisements during television commercial breaks, while reading a periodical, or while passing by billboards in public spaces. A prime example of this messaging technique is advertising campaigns to promote international travel. While advertising foreign destinations and services may stem from the typical goal of increasing revenue by drawing more tourism, some travel campaigns carry the additional or alternative intended purpose of promoting good sentiments or improving existing ones among the target audience towards a given nation or region. It is common for advertising promoting foreign countries to be produced and distributed by the tourism ministries of those countries, so these ads often carry political statements and/or depictions of the foreign governments Perception management Additionally, a wide range of foreign airlines and travel-related services which advertise separately from the destinations, themselves, are owned by their respective governments; examples include, though are not limited to, the Emirates (airline) (Dubai , Singapore Airlines (Singapore , Qatar Airways (Qatar , China Airlines (Taiwan Republic of China , and Air China (People's Republic of China . By depicting their destinations, airlines, and other services in a favorable and pleasant light, countries market themselves to populations abroad in a manner that could mitigate prior public impressions. See: [[Soft Power]]
:A commonly used phrase, sometimes passing as folk wisdom, used to quell cognitive dissonance
:Also known as association this is a technique that involves projecting the positive or negative qualities of one person, entity, object, or value onto another to make the second more acceptable or to discredit it. It evokes an emotional response, which stimulates the target to identify with recognized authorities. Often highly visual, this technique often utilizes symbols (e.g. swastika ) superimposed over other visual images (e.g. logos). These symbols may be used in place of words.
: Richard Crossman the British Deputy Director of Psychological Warfare Division (PWD) for the Supreme Headquarters Allied Expeditionary Force (SHAEF) during the Second World War said "In propaganda truth pays... It is a complete delusion to think of the brilliant propagandist as being a professional liar. The brilliant propagandist is the man who tells the truth, or that selection of the truth which is requisite for his purpose, and tells it in such a way that the recipient does not think he is receiving any propaganda... ...] The art of propaganda is not telling lies, but rather selecting the truth you require and giving it mixed up with some truths the audience wants to hear." [lt;/ref>
:This technique is used when the idea the propagandist wants to plant would seem less credible if explicitly stated. The concept is instead repeatedly assumed or implied.
:These are words in the value system of the target audience that produce a positive image when attached to a person or issue. Peace, happiness, security, wise leadership, freedom, "The Truth", etc. are virtue words. Many see religiosity as a virtue, making associations to this quality effectively beneficial. Their use is considered of the [[Transfer (propaganda)|Transfer]]propaganda technique.
The field of social Psychology includes the study of persuasion Social psychologists can be Social psychology (sociology) or Social psychology (psychology) The field includes many theories and approaches to understanding persuasion. For example, communication theory points out that people can be persuaded by the communicators credibility, expertise, trustworthiness, and attractiveness. The elaboration likelihood model as well as heuristic models of persuasion suggest that a number of factors (e.g., the degree of interest of the recipient of the communication), influence the degree to which people allow superficial factors to persuade them. Nobel Prize winning psychologist Herbert A. Simon won the Nobel prize for his theory that people are cognitive misers. That is, in a society of mass information people are forced to make decisions quickly and often superficially, as opposed to logically.
Social cognitive theories suggest that people have inherent biases in the way they perceive the world and these biases can be used to manipulate them. For example, people tend to believe that peoples misfortune (e.g., poverty) is a result of the person and downplay external factors (e.g., being born into poverty). This bias is referred to as the Fundamental Attribution Error Self Fulfilling prophecies occur when people believe what they have been told they are. Propaganda frequently plays upon peoples existing biases to achieve its end. For example, the illusion of control refers to peoples seemingly innate desire to believe they can and should control their lives. Propagandists frequently argue their point by claiming that the other side is attempting to take away your control. For example, Republicans frequently claim that Democrats are attempting to control you by imposing big government on your private life and take away your spending power by imposing higher taxes while Democrats frequently argue that they are reigning in big corporations that are attempting to influence elections with money, power and take away your job, health etc. ... According to bipartisan analysis, these claims are frequently untrue.
Role theory is frequently used to identify an idea as appropriate because it is associated with a role. For example, the public relations firm Leo Burnett Worldwide used the Marlboro Man to persuade males that Marlboro cigarettes were a part of being a cool, risk-taking, cowboy rebel who was fearless in the face of threats of cancer. The campaign quadrupled sales of their cigarettes. Of course, smoking has nothing to do with being a cowboy or a rebel. This is a fantasy but the campaigns success is consistent with the tenets of role theory. In fact, the three actors who played the Marlboro man died of lung cancer.
Herman and Chomsky's propaganda model
File Come unto me, ye opprest.jpg attempting to destroy the Statue of Liberty ]]
The propaganda model is a theory advanced by Edward S. Herman and Noam Chomsky that argues systemic bias s in the mass media and seeks to explain them in terms of structural economic cause .
First presented in their 1988 book [[Manufacturing Consent: The Political Economy of the Mass Media|Manufacturing Consent: the Political Economy of the Mass Media]] the propaganda model views the private media as businesses selling a product — readers and audiences (rather than news — to other businesses (advertisers) and relying primarily on government and corporate information and propaganda. The theory postulates five general classes of "filters" that determine the type of news that is presented in news media: Ownership of the medium, the mediums Funding, Sourcing of the news, Flak, and anti-communism ideology
The first three (ownership, funding, and sourcing) are generally regarded by the authors as being the most important. Although the model was based mainly on the characterization of United States media, Chomsky and Herman believe the theory is equally applicable to any country that shares the basic economic structure and organizing principles the model (abstract) postulates as the cause of media bias s. After the Soviet Union disintegrated, Chomsky said terrorism and Islam would be the new filter replacing communism.
Ross' epistemic merit model
The Epistemic Merit Model is a method for understanding propaganda conceived by Sheryl Tuttle Ross and detailed in her 2002 article for the Journal of Aesthetic Educationentitled "Understanding Propaganda: The Epistemic Merit Model and Its Application to Art".
[Ross, Sheryl Tuttle. "Understanding Propaganda: The Epistemic Merit Model and Its Application to Art." Journal of Aesthetic Education Vol. 36, No.1. pp. 16–30] Ross developed the Epistemic merit model due to concern about narrow, misleading definitions of propaganda. She contrasted her model with the ideas of Pope Gregory XV, the Institute for Propaganda Analysis Alfred McClung Lee F.C. Bartlett and Hans Speier Insisting that each of their respective discussions of propaganda are too narrow, Ross proposed her own definition.
File Novum Eboracum.jpg
To appropriately discuss propaganda, Ross argues that one must consider a threefold communication model: that of Sender-Message-Receiver. "That is... propaganda involves]... the one who is persuading (Sender) who is] doing so intentionally, the] target for such persuasion (Receiver) and the] means of reaching that target (Message)." There are four conditions for a message to be considered propaganda. Propaganda involves the intention to persuade. As well, propaganda is sent on behalf of a sociopolitical institution, organization, or cause. Next, the recipient of propaganda is a socially significant group of people. Finally, propaganda is an epistemic struggle to challenge others thoughts.
Ross claims that it is misleading to say that propaganda is simply false, or that it is conditional to a lie, since often the propagandist believes in what he/she is propagandizing. In other words, it is not necessarily a lie if the person who creates the propaganda is trying to persuade you of a view that they actually hold. "The aim of the propagandist is to create the semblance of credibility." This means that they appeal to an epistemology that is weak or defective.
Throughout history those who have wished to persuade have used art to get their message out. This can be accomplished by hiring artists for the express aim of propagandizing or by investing new meanings to a previously non-political work. Therefore, Ross states, it is important to consider "the conditions of its making and] the conditions of its use."
File Prince Rupert - 1st English Civil War.jpg cartoon entitled "The Cruel Practices of Prince Rupert (1643)]]
Primitive forms of propaganda have been a human activity as far back as reliable recorded evidence exists. The Behistun Inscription (c. 515 BC) detailing the rise of Darius I of Persia to the Persian Empire throne is viewed by most historians as an early example of propaganda.
[lt;/ref> The [[Arthashastra]]written by Chanakya (c. 350 – 283 BC), a professor of political science at Takshashila University and a prime minister of the Maurya Empire in History of India discusses propaganda in detail, such as how to spread propaganda and how to apply it in war are. His student Chandragupta Maurya (c. 340 – 293 BC), founder of the Maurya Empire, employed these methods during his rise to power.] [Boesche, Roger. "Kautilyas Arthasastra on War and Diplomacy in Ancient India", The Journal of Military History67 (pp. 9–38), January 2003.] The writings of Roman Empire such as Livy (c. 59 BC – 17 AD) are considered masterpieces of pro-Roman propaganda.The most well-known originator of Roman historiography was Quintus Fabius Pictor (3rd century BCE . His style of writing history defending the Roman state actions and using propaganda heavily eventually became a defining characteristic of Roman historiography. Another example of early propaganda is the 12th-century work, [[The War of the Irish with the Foreigners]] written by the Dál gCais to portray themselves as legitimate rulers of Ireland.
File The Papal Belvedere.jpg From a series of woodcuts by Lucas Cranach the Elder commissioned by Martin Luther [http://books.google.com/books?idkYbupalP98kC&pgPA4&dq%22the+woodcuts+by+Lucas+Cranach+commissioned+by+Luther+near+the+end+of+his+life%22&hlen&ei7HtjTJP9BcL78AamrdzWCQ&saX&oibook_result&ctresult&resnum2&ved0CC8Q6AEwAQ#vonepage&q%22the%20woodcuts%20by%20Lucas%20Cranach%20commissioned%20by%20Luther%20near%20the%20end%20of%20his%20life%22&ffalse] usually referred to as the Papstspotbilder or Papstspottbilder [http://books.google.com/books?id_leG5ztYoZwC&pgPA61&lpgPA61&dq%22This+woodcut+sequence+of+1545,+usually+referred+to+as+the+%22&sourcebl&otsv01iFZ5bbi&sigz9acEc9elPY2wpgXGb0-Ylq2co8&hlen&ei2DxeTMOaA8OqlAeEh7CZCA&saX&oibook_result&ctresult&resnum#vonepage&q%22This%20woodcut%20sequence%20of%201545%2C%20usually%20referred%20to%20as%20the%20%22&ffalse]
Caption reads: "Nicht Bapst: nicht schreck uns mit deim ban, Und sey nicht so zorniger man. Wir thun sonst ein gegen wehre, Und zeigen dirs Bel vedere." "Dont frighten us Pope, with your ban, and dont be such a furious man. Otherwise we shall turn away and show you our rears." [http://books.google.com/books?idkYbupalP98kC&pgPA198&dq%22Don%E2%80%99t+frighten+us+Pope,+with+your+ban%22&hlen&eibHFjTO2dCsGB8gbctpGJCg&saX&oibook_result&ctresult&resnum1&ved0CCUQ6AEwAA#vonepage&q%22Don%E2%80%99t%20frighten%20us%20Pope%2C%20with%20your%20ban%22&ffalse]]]
Caption reads: "Nicht Bapst: nicht schreck uns mit deim ban, Und sey nicht so zorniger man. Wir thun sonst ein gegen wehre, Und zeigen dirs Bel vedere." "Dont frighten us Pope, with your ban, and dont be such a furious man. Otherwise we shall turn away and show you our rears."
Propaganda during the Protestant Reformation helped by the spread of the printing press throughout Europe, and in particular within Germany, caused new ideas, thoughts, and doctrine to be made available to the public in ways that had never been seen before the 16th century. The printing press was invented in approximately 1450 and quickly spread to other major cities around Europe; by the time the Reformation was underway in 1517 there were printing centers in over 200 of the major European cities. [Mark U. Edwards, Printing Propaganda and Martin Luther 15; Louise W. Holborn, "Printing and the Growth of a Protestant Movement in Germany from 1517 to 1524", Church History, 11, no. 2 (1942), 123.] These centers became the primary producers of both Reformation works by the Protestant Reformers and anti-Reformation works put forth by the Roman Catholics.
Propaganda as generally understood, is a modern phenomenon that emerged from the creation of literate and politically active societies informed by a mass media where governments increasingly saw the necessity for swaying public opinion in favour of its policies.
A notable example was perhaps during the Indian Rebellion of 1857 where Indian sepoy rebelled against the British East India Company s Company rule in India Incidents of rape committed by Indian rebels against English people women or girls were exaggerated to great effect by the Media of the United Kingdom to justify continued British Empire in the Indian subcontinent
[lt;/ref> At the time, List of newspapers in the United Kingdom had printed various accounts about English women and girls being raped by the Indian rebels. It was later found that some of these accounts were false stories created to perpetuate the common stereotypes of the native people of British India as savages who need to be civilized by British colonialists, a mission sometimes known as "The White Man's Burden . One such account published by [[The Times]] regarding an incident where 48 English girls as young as 10–14 were supposedly raped by the Indian rebels in Delhi was criticized as a false propaganda story by Karl Marx who pointed out that the story was reported by a clergyman in Bangalore far from the events of the rebellion.] [lt;/ref>
Gabriel Tarde s Laws of Imitation(1890) and Gustave Le Bon s The Crowd: A Study of the Popular Mind(1897) were two of the first codifications of propaganda techniques, which influenced many writers afterward, including Sigmund Freud Hitlers [[Mein Kampf]]is heavily influenced by Le Bons theories.
Abolitionism in Britain and the United States in the 19th century developed large, complex propaganda campaigns against slavery. Stampp says that, "Though abolitionists never argued that the physical treatment of slaves had any decisive bearing on the issue of the morality of slavery, their propaganda emphasized (and doubtless exaggerated) cruelties and atrocities for the purpose of winning converts."
[lt;/ref> Blight says,
:"The authenticity of these reports about southern atrocity is questionable. I know of no verification for them. The propaganda uses of such stories, though, were not lost on abolitionist editors such as Frederick Douglass "] [lt;/ref>
Halttunen argues that the pornography of pain was an essential part of developing a humanitarian sensibility in Britain and the US. She notes, "The index of Theodore Dwight Welds compilation American Slavery as It Is(1839) clearly demonstrates that projects focus on torture: A is for Arbitrary power, cruelty of, B is for Branding with hot iron, C is for Chopping of slaves piecemeal, D is for Dislocation of bones, E is for Ear-cropping."] [Karen Halttunen, "Humanitarianism and the Pornography of Pain in Anglo-American Culture," American Historical Review(1995) 100#2 pp. 303–334 quote at p. 321 http://www.jstor.org/stable/2169001 in JSTOR]] [lt;/ref>
Berry and Alford argue, "Detailed accounts of white slaveholders maliciously whipping bondwomen, stripped of their clothing, gave abolitionist propaganda an eroticism that conflicted with white societys sexual and literary standards. Drawings and stories revealed that enslaved women, stripped partially or completely naked, were whipped....The images of enslaved women historically characterized as immoral, promiscuous, and animalistic were inconsistent with white American values of womanhood."] [lt;/ref>
Kennicott argues that the largest and most effective abolitionist speakers were the blacks who spoke before the countless local meetings of the National Negro Conventions. They used the traditional arguments against slavery, protesting it on moral, economic, and political grounds. Their role in the antislavery movement not only aided abolitionist propaganda but also was a source of pride to the black community.] [Patrick C. Kennicott, "Black Persuaders in the Antislavery Movement," Journal of Black Studies(1970) 1#1 pp 5–20.]
First World War
The first large-scale and organized propagation of government propaganda was occasioned by the outbreak of First World War in 1914. In the wars initial stages, propaganda output was greatly increased by the British and German governments, to persuade their populace in the just war to encourage voluntary recruitment, and above all to demonize the enemy.
At the start of the war, Wilhelm II, German Emperor expanded its unofficial propaganda machinery, establishing the Central Office for Foreign Services, which among other duties was tasked with propaganda distribution to neutral nations, persuading them to either side with Germany or to maintain their stance of neutrality. After the declaration of war, Britain immediately cut the undersea cable that connected Germany to the outside world, thereby cutting off a major propaganda outlet. The Germans relied instead on the powerful wireless Nauen Transmitter Station to broadcast pro-German news reports to the world.
Among other techniques used to keep up the morale of the troops, mobile cinemas were regularly dispatched to the front line for the entertainment of the troops. Newsreels would portray current events with a pro-German slant. German propaganda techniques heavily relied on emphasizing the mythology and martial nature of the Germanic Volk and the inevitability of its triumph.
British propaganda during World War I called “an impressive exercise in improvisation” - was hastily expanded at the beginning of the war and was rapidly brought under government control as the War Propaganda Bureau (Wellington House), under the overall leadership of journalist Charles Masterman The Bureau began its propaganda campaign on 2 September 1914 when Masterman invited 25 leading British authors to Wellington House to discuss ways of best promoting Britains interests during the war. Those who attended included William Archer (critic) Arthur Conan Doyle Arnold Bennett John Masefield Ford Madox Ford G. K. Chesterton Henry Newbolt John Galsworthy Thomas Hardy Rudyard Kipling Gilbert Parker G. M. Trevelyan and H. G. Wells Several of the writers agreed to write pamphlets and books that would promote the governments point of view; these were printed and published by such well-known publishers as Hodder amp; Stoughton Methuen Publishing Oxford University Press John Murray (publisher) Macmillan Publishers and Thomas Nelson (publisher)
File Kitchener-Britons.jpg " poster]]
After January 1916 the Bureaus activities were subsumed under the office of the Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs. In May 1916 Masterman began recruiting artists, including Muirhead Bone Francis Dodd (artist) Eric Kennington and others, to paint pictures of the war in Western Front and the home front. In early 1918 it was decided that a senior government figure should take over responsibility for propaganda and on 4 March Max Aitken, Lord Beaverbrook owner of the [[Daily Express]]newspaper, was made Minister of Information The British effort soon far surpassed the German in its quality and ability to sway the public mood both at home and abroad.
A variety of propaganda methods were used by the British during the war, with emphasis on the need for credibility.] [lt;/ref> Written forms of distributed propaganda included books, pamphlets, official publications, ministerial speeches or royal messages. They were targeted at influential individuals, such as journalists and politicians, rather than a mass audience.] [Ibidem, Messinger 1992] Pamphlets were distributed to various foreign countries, primarily the United States - these pamphlets were academic in tone and factual in nature, distributed through unofficial channels. By 1916, 7 million copies had been circulated by Wellington House in various languages. [lt;/ref>
British propagandists also sought to influence the foreign press, by providing it with information through the Neutral Press Committee and the Foreign Office. Special telegraph agencies were established in various European cities, including Bucharest Bilbao and Amsterdam in order to facilitate the spread of information.] [lt;/ref>
Recruitment was a central theme of domestic propaganda until the introduction of conscription in January 1916. The most common theme for recruitment posters was patriotism, which evolved into appeals for people to do their fair share. Among the most famous of the posters used in the British Army Recruitment to the British Army during World War I of World War I were the "Lord Kitchener Wants You posters, which depicted Secretary of State for War Herbert Kitchener, 1st Earl Kitchener above the words "WANTS YOU".
One major propaganda avenue was the use of atrocity stories. These aimed to mobilise hatred of the German enemy by spreading details of their atrocities, real or alleged, and was used extensively by Britain, reaching a peak in 1915, with much of the atrocities related to Rape of Belgium ] [lt;/ref>] [Laurence V. Moyer, Victory Must Be Ours: Germany in the Great War 1914-1918 p 96 ISBN 0-7818-0370-5] [Laurence V. Moyer, Victory Must Be Ours: Germany in the Great War 1914-1918 p 97 ISBN 0-7818-0370-5] One of the first significant publications to be produced by the Bureau was the [[The Bryce Report|Report on Alleged German Outrages]] in early 1915. This pamphlet documented atrocities both actual and alleged committed by the German army against Belgian civilians. Other atrocity stories included the fate of the nurse Edith Cavell and the Sinking of the RMS Lusitania These had a significant impact both in Britain and in America, making front-page headlines in major newspapers. [ lt;/ref>] [lt;/ref>
Before the United States declared war in 1917, it established a propaganda department along similar lines. President Woodrow Wilson hired Walter Lippmann and Edward Bernays to participate in the Committee on Public Information which was to sway popular opinion in favor of entering the war on the side of the United Kingdom. The Creel Committee provided themes for speeches by "four-minute men" at public functions, and also encouraged censorship of the American press. Starting after World War I, propaganda had a growing negative connotation. This was due in part to the 1920 book "How We Advertised America: the First Telling of the Amazing Story of the Committee on Public Information that Carried the Gospel of Americanism to Every Corner of the Globe"] [Rogers, E.M. (1994). A history of communication study: A biographical approach. New York, NY: The Free Press.] in which the impact of the Creel Committee, and the power of propaganda, was overemphasized. The Committee was so unpopular that after the war, Congress closed it down without providing funding to organize and archive its papers.
File Cicatrices de flagellation sur un esclave.jpg A former slave showing keloid scars from whipping. This famous photo was distributed by abolitionists. [Kathleen Collins, "http://www.historybroker.com/slavery/slpage3.htm The Scourged Back]," History of Photography 9 (January 1985): 43–45.]]]
The war propaganda campaign of the Creel Committee "produced within six months such an intense anti-German hysteria as to permanently impress American business (and Adolf Hitler among others) with the potential of large-scale propaganda to control public opinion." [p. 22, Alex Carey, Taking the Risk Out of Democracy: Corporate Propaganda versus Freedom and Liberty University of Illinois Press, 1997.]
Russian revolutionaries of the 19th and 20th centuries distinguished two different aspects covered by the English term propaganda Their terminology included two terms: (agitatsiya), or agitation and or propaganda see agitprop (agitprop is not, however, limited to the Soviet Union as it was considered, before the October Revolution to be one of the fundamental activities of any Marxism activist; this importance of agit-prop in Marxist theory may also be observed today in Trotskyist circles, who insist on the importance of Flyer (pamphlet) distribution).
Propaganda in the Soviet Union meant dissemination of revolutionary ideas, teachings of Marxism, and theoretical and practical knowledge of Marxist economics while agitationmeant forming favorable public opinion and stirring up political unrest. These activities did not carry negative connotations (as they usually do in English) and were encouraged. Expanding dimensions of state propaganda, the Bolsheviks actively used transportation such as trains, aircraft and other means.
Joseph Stalin s regime built the largest fixed-wing aircraft of the 1930s, Tupolev ANT-20 exclusively for this purpose. Named after the famous Soviet writer Maxim Gorky who had recently returned from Italian fascism it was equipped with a powerful radio set called "Voice from the sky", printing and leaflet-dropping machinery, radio station , photographic laboratory Movie projector with sound for showing movies in flight, library, etc. The aircraft could be disassembled and transported by railroad if needed. The giant aircraft set a number of world records.
Image:World October revolution poster.jpg|"Long Live World October Revolution "
Image:1923 Bolshevik propaganda train.jpg|Bolshevik propaganda train, 1923.
Image:ANT-20.jpg|Tupolev ANT-20 "Maxim Gorky" propaganda aircraft in the Moscow sky.
Bernays, a nephew of Freud, who wrote the book Propaganda (book) early in the 20th century,
[http://home.bway.net/drstu/chapter.html About Edward Berneys book chapter]] later coined the terms "group mind" and "engineering consent", important concepts in practical propaganda work. He wrote: [Bernays, Edward. Propaganda(1928)]
The conscious and intelligent manipulation of the organized habits and opinions of the masses is an important element in democratic society. Those who manipulate this unseen mechanism of society constitute an invisible government which is the true ruling power of our country.The file Century of the Self by Adam Curtis documents the immense influence of these ideas on public relations and politics throughout the last century.
Lippmann, in [[Public Opinion]](1922) also worked on the subject, as well as the American advertising pioneer and founder of the field of public relations Edward Bernays a nephew of Freud, who wrote the book Propaganda (book) early in the 20th century.
We are governed, our minds are molded, our tastes formed, our ideas suggested, largely by men we have never heard of. This is a logical result of the way in which our democratic society is organized. Vast numbers of human beings must cooperate in this manner if they are to live together as a smoothly functioning society.
According to Alex Carey one distinctive feature of the 20th century was "the professionalizing and institutionalizing of propaganda", as it became an increasingly prominent, sophisticated, and self-conscious tactic of both government and business. ["Conspiracy Or Groundswell?", in Ken Coghill and McPhee Gribble (eds.), The New Rights Australian Fantasy, Penguin Books 1987, pp. 3–19.]
After the defeat of Germany in the First World War military officials such as Erich Ludendorff suggested that British propaganda had been instrumental in their defeat. Adolf Hitler came to echo this view, believing that it had been a primary cause of the collapse of morale and the revolts in the German home front and Navy in 1918 (see also: Dolchstoßlegende . Later, the Nazis adapted many British propaganda techniques during their time in power. Most propaganda in Germany was produced by the Ministry of Public Enlightenment and Propaganda Joseph Goebbels was placed in charge of this ministry shortly after Hitler took power in 1933. All journalists, writers, and artists were required to register with one of the Ministrys subordinate chambers for the press, fine arts, music, theatre, film, literature, or radio.
Hitler met nearly every day with Goebbels to discuss the news, and Goebbels would obtain Hitlers thoughts on the subject. Goebbels then met with senior Ministry officials to pass down the official Party line on world events. Broadcasters and journalists required prior approval before their works were disseminated. Along with posters, the Nazis produced a number of Leni Riefenstahl and books to spread their beliefs.
Image:Bundesarchiv Bild 101I-107-1346-27A, Nordeuropa, Herstellung einer Feldzeitung.jpg|Lappland-Kurier soldiers newspaper
Second World War
World War II saw continued use of propaganda as a weapon of war, building on the experience of WW1, both by Hitlers propagandist Joseph Goebbels and the British Political Warfare Executive as well as the United States Office of War Information
Cold War propaganda
File Bundesarchiv Bild 183-1988-0126-018, Infografik, Rohholz für die Volkswirtschaft.jpg poster showing the increase of timber production from 7 million cubic metre in 1970 to 11 million in 1990]]
File Bundesarchiv Bild 183-1987-0122-023, Infografik, Landwirtschaft der DDR Getreideerträge.jpg from 1981 to 1983 and 1986]]
File Korean-leaflet-bomb.jpg during the Korean War ]]
The West and the Soviet Union both used propaganda extensively during the Cold War Both sides used film, television, and radio programming to influence their own citizens, each other, and Third World nations. The United States Information Agency operated the Voice of America as an official government station. Radio Free Europe and Radio Liberty which were, in part, supported by the Central Intelligence Agency provided grey propaganda in news and entertainment programs to Eastern Europe and the Soviet Union respectively. The Soviet Unions official government station, Radio Moscow, broadcast white propaganda while Radio Peace and Freedom broadcast grey propaganda. Both sides also broadcast black propaganda programs in periods of special crises.
In 1948, the United Kingdom s Foreign Office created the IRD (Information Research Department , which took over from wartime and slightly post-war departments such as the Ministry of Information (United Kingdom) and dispensed propaganda via various media such as the BBC and publishing.
Its main targets were in the Third World ] [http://www.cambridgeclarion.org/e/fo_deceit_unit_graun_27jan1978.html Death of the department that never was] from [[The Guardian]] January 27, 1978] However, it was also set out to "be of use to" British media and opinion formers. As well as supplying material to the BBC World Service secret lists were compiled of approved journalists and trade unionists to whom material was offered, if not always accepted.
Possibly its most notorious "project" was the joint operation with the CIA to set up [[Encounter (magazine)|Encounter]]magazine, edited by Stephen Spender from 1953 to 1966. Spender resigned after it emerged that the Congress for Cultural Freedom which published the magazine, was being covertly funded by the CIA [lt;/ref>
The Sino-Soviet split between the Soviet Union and People's Republic of China resulted in a number of cross-border operations. One technique developed during this period was the "backwards transmission," in which the radio program was recorded and played backwards over the air. (This was done so that messages meant to be received by the other government could be heard, while the average listener could not understand the content of the program).
When describing life in capitalist countries, in the US in particular, propaganda focused on social issues such as poverty and anti-union action by the government. Workers in capitalist countries were portrayed as "ideologically close". Propaganda claimed rich people from the US derived their income from Arms industry and claimed that there was substantial racism or neo-fascism in the US.
When describing life in Communist countries, western propaganda sought to depict an image of a citizenry held captive by governments that brainwash them. The West also created a fear of the East, by depicting an aggressive Soviet Union. In the Americas, Cuba served as a major source and a target of propaganda from both black and white stations operated by the CIA and Cuban exile groups. Radio Habana Cuba, in turn, broadcast original programming, relayed Radio Moscow, and broadcast The Voice of Vietnamas well as alleged confessions from the crew of the [[USS Pueblo (AGER-2)|USS Pueblo]]
George Orwell s novels [[Animal Farm]]and [[Nineteen Eighty-Four]]are virtual textbooks on the use of propaganda. Though not set in the Soviet Union, these books are about totalitarian regimes that constantly corrupt language for political purposes. These novels were, ironically, used for explicit propaganda. The CIA for example, secretly commissioned an animated film adaptation of Animal Farmin the 1950s with small changes to the original story to suit its own needs.] [http://film.guardian.co.uk/features/featurepages/0,4120,908925,00.html Guardian — The cartoon that came in from the cold -]]
Propaganda was used extensively by Communist forces in the Vietnam War as means of controlling peoples opinions.
[http://sealang.net/sala/archives/pdf8/sophana2007vietnamese.pdf] Vietnamese propaganda reflections from 1945–2000] Radio stations like Radio Hanoi were in an integral part of North Vietnam se propaganda operations. Communist Vietnam se politician Mai Chi Tho, commenting on the use of propaganda stated: [New York Times Magazine, March 29, 1981]
"Ho Chi Minh may have been an evil man; Nixon may have been a great man. The Americans may have had the just cause; we may not have had the just cause. But we won and the Americans were defeated because we convinced the people that Ho Chi Minh is the great man, that Nixon is a murderer, and the Americans are the invaders... The key factor is how to control people and their opinions. Only Marxism-Leninism can do that."
During the Yugoslav wars propaganda was used as a military strategy by governments of Federal Republic of Yugoslavia and Croatia.
Propaganda was used to create fear and hatred and particularly incite the Serb population against the other ethnicities (Bosniaks Croats Albanians and other non-Serbs). Serb News media made a great effort in justifying, revising or denying mass war crimes committed by Serb forces during the Yugoslav wars on Bosniaks and other non-Serbs.
According to the ICTY verdicts against Serb political and military leaders, during the Bosnian war the propaganda was a part of the Strategic Plan by Serb leadership, aimed at linking Serb-populated areas in Bosnia and Herzegovina together, gaining control over these areas and creating a sovereign Serb nation state from which most non-Serbs would be permanently removed. The Serb leadership was aware that the Strategic Plan could only be implemented by the use of force and fear thus by the commission of war crimes.] [lt;/ref>] [lt;/ref>
Croats also used propaganda against Serbs throughoutand against Bosniaks during the 1992–1994 Croat-Bosniak war which was part of the larger Bosnian War During Lašva Valley ethnic cleansing Croat forces seized the television broadcasting stations (for example at Skradno) and created its own local radio and television to carry propaganda, seized the public institutions, raised the Croatian flag over public institution buildings, and imposed the Croatian Dinar as the unit of currency. During this time, Busovača s Bosniaks were forced to sign an act of allegiance to the Croat authorities, fell victim to numerous attacks on shops and businesses and, gradually, left the area out of fear that they would be the victims of mass crimes.] [lt;/ref> According to ICTY Trial Chambers in Blaškić caseCroat authorities created a radio station in Kiseljak to broadcast nationalist propaganda.] [lt;/ref> A similar pattern was applied in Mostar and Gornji Vakuf (where Croats created a radio station called Radio Uskoplje.] [lt;/ref> Local propaganda efforts in parts of Bosnia and Herzegovina controlled by the Croats, were supported by Croatian daily newspapers such as Večernji list and Croatian Radiotelevision especially by controversial reporters Dijana Čuljak and Smiljko Šagolj who are still blamed by the families of Bosniak victims in Vranica casefor inciting massacre of Bosnian POWs in Mostar, when broadcasting a report about alleged terrorists arrested by Croats who victimized Croat civilians. The bodies of Bosnian POWs were later found in Goranci mass grave. Croatian Radiotelevision presented Croat attack on Mostar, as a Bosnian Muslim attack on Croats in alliance with the Serbs. According to ICTY, in the early hours of May 9, 1993, the Croatian Defence Council (HVO) attacked Mostar using artillery, mortars, heavy weapons and small arms. The HVO controlled all roads leading into Mostar and international organisations were denied access. Radio Mostar announced that all Bosniaks should hang out a white flag from their windows. The HVO attack had been well prepared and planned.] [lt;/ref>
During the ICTY trials against Croat war leaders, many Croatian journalists participated as the defence witnesses trying to relativise war crimes committed by Croatian troops against non-Croat civilians (Bosniaks in Bosnia and Herzegovina and Serbs in Croatia). During the trial against general Tihomir Blaškić (later convicted of war crimes), Ivica Mlivončić Croatian columnist in Slobodna Dalmacija tried to defend general Blaškić presenting number of claims in his book Zločin s pečatomabout alleged genocide against Croats(most of it unproven or false), which was considered by the Trial Chambers as irrelevant for the case. After the conviction, he continued to write in Slobodna Dalmacijaagainst the ICTY presenting it as the court against Croats with chauvinistic claims that the ICTY cannot be unbiased because it is financed by [[Saudi Arabia]] ([[Muslims]])] [Slobodna Dalmacija — NAJVEĆI DONATOR HAAŠKOG SUDA JE — SAUDIJSKA ARABIJA http://www.hsp1861.hr/vijesti1/011228im.htm]] [http://www.aimpress.ch/dyn/pubs/archive/data/200110/11005-004-pubs-zag.htm Igor Lasić — Izlog izdavačkog smeća]]
Modern propaganda techniques
In the 2001 War in Afghanistan (2001–present) psychological operations tactics were employed to demoralization (military) the Taliban and to win the sympathies of the Afghan population. At least six EC-130E aircraft were used to jam local radio transmissions and transmit replacement propaganda messages.
Pamphlets were also dropped throughout Afghanistan, offering rewards for Osama bin Laden and other individuals, portraying Americans as friends of Afghanistan and emphasizing various negative aspects of the Taliban. Another shows a picture of Mohammed Omar in a set of crosshairs with the words "We are watching."
File your future al-Zarqawi.jpg Psychological operations pamphlet disseminated in Iraq Text: "This is your future al-Zarqawi" and shows al-Qaeda fighter al-Zarqawi caught in a rat trap.]]
The United States and Iraq both employed propaganda during the Iraq War The United States established campaigns towards the American people on the justifications of the war while using similar tactics to bring down Saddam Hussein s government in Iraq.
[Altheide, David L. "War and Mass Mediated Evidence." Cultural Studies — Critical Methodologies 9 (2009): 14–22.]
The Iraqi insurgency's plan was to gain as much support as possible by using violence as their propaganda tool.
[Garfield, Andrew. "The U.S. Counter-propaganda Failure in Iraq." Middle East Quarterly 14 (2007): 23–32.] Inspired by the [[Vietcong]]'s tactics, [Schleifer, Ron. "Reconstructing Iraq: Winning the Propaganda War in Iraq." Middle East Quarterly (2005): 15–24.] [[Iraqi insurgency|insurgents]] were using rapid movement to keep the [[coalition]] off-balance. [Garfield, Andrew 2007"/> By using low-technology strategies to convey their messages, they were able to gain support.] [Garfield, Andrew. "The U.S. Counter-propaganda Failure in Iraq." Middle East Quarterly 14 (2007): 24] Graffiti slogans were used on walls and houses praising the virtues of many group leaders while condemning the Iraqi government. Others used flyers, leaflets, articles and self-published newspapers and magazines to get the point across.
Insurgents also produced CDs and DVDs and distributed them in communities that the Iraq and the U.S. Government were trying to influence. [Garfield, Andrew. "The U.S. Counter-propaganda Failure in Iraq." Middle East Quarterly 14 (2007): 26] The insurgents designed advertisements that cost a fraction of what the US was spending on their ads aimed at the same people in Iraq with much more success. In addition, the Iraqis also created and established an Arabic language television station to transmit information to the people of Iraq about the rumors and lies that the Americans were spreading about the war.
American propaganda in Iraq
To achieve their aim of a moderate, pro-western Iraq, US authorities were careful to avoid conflicts with Islamic culture that would produce passionate reactions from Iraqis, but differentiating between "good" and "bad" Islams has proved challenging for the US.
[[File:Anti-Japan2.png|thumb|right|190px|News of the [[Bataan Death March]] sparked outrage in the US, as reflected in this poster.]]
The US implemented something called "[[Black Propaganda]]" by creating false radio personalities that would disseminate pro-American information but supposedly run by the supporters of Saddam Hussein. One radio station used was Radio Tikrit. Another example of America's attempt with Black Propaganda is that the US paid Iraqis to publish articles written by American troops in their newspapers under the idea that they are unbiased and real accounts; this was brought forth by the ''[[New York Times]]'' in 2005. [ShahAnup">Shah, Anup. Iraq War Media Reporting, Journalism and Propaganda. Aug 1, 2007. May 12, 2009. ] The article stated that it was the Lincoln Group who had been hired by the US government to create the propaganda, however their names were later cleared from any wrongdoing.
The US was more successful with the "Voice of America campaign, which is an old Cold War tactic that exploited peoples desire for information. While the information they gave out to the Iraqis was truthful, they were in a high degree of competition with the opposing forces after the censorship of the Iraqi media was lifted with the removal of Saddam from power. [Goldstein, Sol. "A Strategic Failure: American Information Control Policy in Occupied Iraq." Military Review 88.2 (Mar. 2008): 58–65.]
In November 2005, the [[Chicago Tribune]]and the [[Los Angeles Times]] alleged that the United States military had media manipulation reported in Iraqi media in an effort to cast a favorable light on its actions while demoralizing the insurgency Lt. Col. Barry Johnson, a military spokesman in Iraq, said the program is "an important part of countering misinformation in the news by insurgents", while a spokesman for former Defense Secretary Donald H. Rumsfeld said the allegations of manipulation were troubling if true. The United States Department of Defense confirmed the existence of the program. [lt;/ref>] [lt;/ref>
Propaganda aimed at Americans
The extent to which the US government was guilty of propaganda aimed at its own people is a matter of discussion. The book ''Selling Intervention & War'' by Jon Western argued that president Bush was "selling the war" to the public.
[Thrall, A. Trevor. "A Review of: "Weapons of Mass Deception: The Uses of Propaganda in Bush's War on Iraq, by Sheldon Rampton and John Stauber Weapons of Mass Persuasion: Marketing the War Against Iraq, by Paul Rutherford Selling Intervention & War: The Presidency, the..." Political Communication 24.2 (Apr. 2007): 202–207.]
President George W. Bush gave a talk at the Athena Performing Arts Center at Greece Athena Middle and High School Tuesday, May 24, 2005 in Rochester, NY. About halfway through the event Bush said, "See in my line of work you got to keep repeating things over and over and over again for the truth to sink in, to kind of catapult the propaganda."
People had their initial reactions to the War on Terror, but with more biased and persuading information, Iraq as a whole has been negatively targeted. [John, Sue Lockett, et al. "Going Public, Crisis after Crisis: The Bush Administration and the Press from September 11 to Saddam." Rhetoric & Public Affairs 10.2 (Summer2007 2007): 195–219.] America's goal was to remove Saddam Hussein's power in Iraq with allegations of possible weapons of mass destruction related to [[Osama Bin Laden]]. [O'Shaughnessy, Nicholas. "Weapons of Mass Seduction: Propaganda, Media and the Iraq War." Journal of Political Marketing 3.4 (2004): 79–104. America: History & Life.] Video and picture coverage in the news has shown shocking and disturbing images of [[torture]] and other evils being done under the [[Iraqi Government]].
File NKmuseum.jpg ]]
Every year, a state-owned publishing house releases several cartoons (called geurim-chaek in North Korea), many of which are smuggled across the Chinese border and, sometimes, end up in university libraries in the United States. The books are designed to instill the Juche philosophy of Kim Il-sung (the father of North Korea)—radical self-reliance of the state. The plots mostly feature scheming capitalists from the United States and Japan who create dilemmas for naïve North Korean characters.
Mexican drug cartels
Drug cartels have been engaged in propaganda and psychological campaigns to influence their rivals and those within their area of influence. They use banners and "narcomanta " to threaten their rivals. Some cartels hand out pamphlets and leaflets to conduct public relation campaigns. They have been able to control the information environment by threatening journalists, bloggers, and others who speak out against them. They have elaborate recruitment strategies targeting young adults to join their cartel groups. They have successfully branded the word "narco", and the word has become part of Mexican culture. There is music, television shows, literature, beverages, food, and architecture that all have been branded "narco".
Quentin Tarantinos [[Django Unchained]]was going to be the first Tarantino film approved for official distribution in China s Censorship in China Film film market.
[lt;/ref>] [lt;/ref> Lily Kuo, on Quartz (publication) wrote that "the film depicts one of America’s darker periods, when slavery was legal, which Chinese officials like to use to push back against criticism from the United States. ... Moreover, in classrooms and in Propaganda in the People's Republic of China America’s seizure of land from Native Americans and the US Civil War are well covered as a way to justify to Chinese citizens that every country fights for its territorial integrity. In other words, China is no different for insisting that Tibet Xinjiang, and eventually Taiwan, be part of the mainland at all costs."] [lt;/ref>
Of all the potential targets for propaganda, children are the most vulnerable because they are the most unprepared for the critical reasoning and contextual comprehension required to determine whether a message is propaganda or not. Childrens vulnerability to propaganda is rooted in developmental psychology The attention children give their environment during development, due to the process of developing their understanding of the world, will cause them to absorb propaganda indiscriminately. Also, children are highly imitative: studies by Albert Bandura Dorothea Ross and Sheila A. Ross in the 1960s indicated
File Los Carlitos pag 73.jpg Sandinista National Liberation Front The text reads, "Sandinista children: Toño, Delia and Rodolfo are in the Association of Sandinista Children. Sandinista children use a neckerchief They participate in the revolution and are very studious."]]
To a degree, socialization formal education and standardized television programming can be seen as using propaganda for the purpose of indoctrination The use of propaganda in schools was highly prevalent during the 1930s and 1940s in Germany, as well as in Stalinist Russia.
Anti-Semitic propaganda for children
In Nazi Germany, the education system was thoroughly co-opted to indoctrinate the German youth with anti-Semitic ideology. This was accomplished through the National Socialist Teachers League of which 97% of all German teachers were members in 1937. It encouraged the teaching of "racial theory." Picture books for children such as Dont Trust A Fox in A Green Meadow Or the Word of A Jew, [[Der Giftpilz]](translated into English as The Poisonous Mushroom, and The Poodle-Pug-Dachshund-Pincherwere widely circulated (over 100,000 copies of Dont Trust A Fox... were circulated during the late 1930s) and contained depictions of Jews as devils, child molesters, and other morally charged figures. Slogans such as "Judas the Jew betrayed Jesus the German to the Jews" were recited in class.
[Mills, Mary. "Propaganda and Children During the Hitler Years". Jewish Virtual Library. http://www.jewishvirtuallibrary.org/jsource/Holocaust/propchil.html] The following is an example of a propagandistic math problem recommended by the National Socialist Essence of Education:
* Agenda-setting theory
* Cartographic propaganda
* Crowd manipulation
* Edith Cavell Role in World War I propaganda
* Framing (social sciences)
* Index of public relations-related articles
* Libyan civil war
* Martyrdom video
* Media bias
* Media manipulation
* Music and political warfare
* Perception management
* Political warfare
* Psychological manipulation
* Psychological warfare
* Sleeper effect
* Space propaganda
* Japanese propaganda during World War II
** Hakkō ichiu
** An Investigation of Global Policy with the Yamato Race as Nucleus
** Shinmin no Michi
** Statism in Shōwa Japan
* American propaganda during World War II
* British propaganda during WWII
* Soviet propaganda during World War II
* Canadian propaganda during World War II
* International Convention concerning the Use of Broadcasting in the Cause of Peace
* Propaganda in the People's Republic of China
* Propaganda in the Republic of China
* Propaganda in North Korea
* Propaganda in the War in Somalia
* White Paper on El Salvador
* Hutu Ten Commandments
* Radio Télévision Libre des Mille Collines
* Altheide, David L. & Johnson, John M. Bureaucratic Propaganda Boston: Allyn and Bacon, Inc. (1980)
* Brown, J.A.C. Techniques of Persuasion: From Propaganda to BrainwashingHarmondsworth: Pelican (1963)
* Noam Chomsky and Herman, Edward. Manufacturing Consent: The Political Economy of the Mass Media New York: Pantheon Books. (1988)
* Cole, Robert. Propaganda in Twentieth Century War and Politics(1996)
* Cole, Robert, ed. Encyclopedia of Propaganda(3 vol 1998)
* Combs, James E. & Nimmo, Dan. The New Propaganda: The Dictatorship of Palaver in Contemporary Politics White Plains, N.Y. Longman. (1993)
* Nicholas J. Cull Culbert, and Welch, eds. Propaganda and Mass Persuasion: A Historical Encyclopedia, 1500 to the Present(2003)
* Cunningham, Stanley, B. The Idea of Propaganda: A Reconstruction Westport, Conn.: Praeger. (2002)
* Cunninghamm Stanley B. "Reflections on the Interface Between Propaganda and Religion." In P.Rennick, S. Cunningham, R.H. Johnson (eds), The Future of Religion. Cambridge Scholars Pub.: Newcastle upon Tyne 2010, pp. 83–96.
* Dimitri Kitsikis Propagande et pressions en politique internationale Paris, Presses Universitaires de France, 1963, 537 pages.
* Jacques Ellul Propaganda: The Formation of Mens Attitudes. Trans. Konrad Kellen & Jean Lerner. New York: Knopf, 1965. New York: Random House/ Vintage 1973
* Jowett, Garth S. and Victoria O"Donnell, Propaganda and Persuasion, 5th edition. California: Sage Publications, 2010. A detailed overview of the history, function, and analyses of propaganda.
* Kingsbury, Celia Malone. For Home and Country: World War I Propaganda on the Home Front(University of Nebraska Press; 2010; 308 pages). Describes propaganda directed toward the homes of the American homefront in everything from cookbooks and popular magazines to childrens toys.
* Harold D. Lasswell Propaganda Technique in World War I Cambridge, Mass: The M.I.T. Press. (1971)
* Gustave Le Bon The Crowd: a study of the Popular Mind(1895)
* John R. MacArthur Second Front: Censorship and Propaganda in the Gulf War New York: Hill and Wang. (1992)
* Randal Marlin Propaganda & The Ethics of Persuasion Orchard Park, New York: Broadview Press. (2002)
* McCombs M. E. & Shaw, D. L. (1972). The agenda-setting function of mass media. Public Opinion Quarterly, 36 176–187.
* Linebarger, Paul M. Psychological Warfare International Propaganda and Communications. ISBN 0-405-04755-X (1948)
* Moran, T. "Propaganda as Pseudocommunication." Et Cetera 2(1979), pp. 181–197.
* Pratkanis, Anthony & Aronson, Elliot. Age of Propaganda: The Everyday Use and Abuse of Persuasion New York: W.H. Freeman and Company. (1992)
* Rutherford, Paul. Endless Propaganda: The Advertising of Public Goods Toronto: University of Toronto Press. (2000)
* Rutherford, Paul. Weapons of Mass Persuasion: Marketing the War Against Iraq Toronto: University of Toronto Press. (2004)
* Snow, Nancy. Propaganda, Inc.: Selling Americas Culture to the World. New York, NY: Seven Stories Press. (2010)
* Sproule, J. Michael. Channels of Propaganda Bloomington, IN: EDINFO Press. (1994)
* Stauber, John, and Rampton, Sheldon [http://www.prwatch.org/books/tsigfy.html Toxic Sludge Is Good for You! Lies, Damn Lies and the Public Relations Industry]Monroe, Maine: Common Courage Press, 1995.
* Edward Bernays http://www.historyisaweapon.org/defcon1/bernprop.html "Propaganda"]. (1928)
* John H. Brown http://uscpublicdiplomacy.org/index.php/newswire/cpdblog_detail/060629_two_ways_of_looking_at_propaganda/ "Two Ways of Looking at Propaganda"] (2006)
* Kosar, Kevin R., http://www.fas.org/sgp/crs/misc/RL32750.pdf Public Relations and Propaganda: Restrictions on Executive Branch Activities], CRS Report RL32750, February 2005.
* Nancy Snow http://www.nancysnow.com/ "American Persuasion, Influence and Propaganda"]
* http://www.prwatch.org/ PR Watch]
* http://hnn.us/articles/20418.html Is Government Propaganda Legal? Well...]
* http://www.spinwatch.org Spinwatch]
* http://www.propagandacritic.com Propaganda Critic]: A website devoted to propaganda analysis.
* http://www.salon.com/news/opinion/glenn_greenwald/2010/04/05/afghanistan/index.html How Americans are propagandized about Afghanistan] by Glenn Greenwald Salon.com
* http://www.gwu.edu/~nsarchiv/NSAEBB/NSAEBB78/ Documentation on Early Cold War U.S. Propaganda Activities in the Middle East] by the National Security Archive. Collection of 148 documents and overview essay.
* http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/12456a.htm Sacred Congregation of Propaganda] from the Catholic Encyclopedia
* http://members.home.nl/ww2propaganda/ World War II propaganda leaflets]: A website about airdropped, shelled or rocket fired propaganda leaflets. Some posters also.
* http://www.warmuseum.ca/cwm/exhibitions/propaganda/index_e.shtml Canadian Wartime Propaganda - Canadian War Museum]
* http://www.dogmacollection.com Northern Vietnamese Propaganda from the U.S. Vietnam War]. The largest collection of North Vietnamese propaganda available on-line.
* http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/in_pictures/7531260.stm "North Koreas art of propaganda"], BBC, July 29, 2007: images of North Korean propaganda posters
* http://www.transpacificradio.com/2007/02/26/nazi1/ CBC Radios "Nazi Eyes On Canada" (1942)], series with Hollywood stars promoting Canadian War Bonds
* http://dlxs.richmond.edu/w/wtp/index.html America at War], a digital collection of World War II-era American propaganda pamphlets and additional material
* http://fax.libs.uga.edu/wwpost/ Over 400 posters from World Wars I & II] (searchable facsimile at the University of Georgia Libraries; DjVu & http://fax.libs.uga.edu/wwpost/1f/world_war_posters.pdf layered PDF] format)
* http://www.psywar.org/leaflets.php Psywar.org]s large collection of propaganda leaflets from various conflicts
* http://www.pyang.su Pyongyang Chronicles]
*http://www.life.com/image/first/in-gallery/27932/wwii-intense-propaganda-posters WWII: Intense Propaganda Posters] - slideshow by [[Life magazine]]
* http://www.centcom.mil/galleries/leaflets/showleaflets.asp US Central Command (CENTCOM) archive of propaganda leaflets dropped in Iraq]
* http://www.iisg.nl/~landsberger/ Stefan Landsbergers Chinese Propaganda Poster Pages]
* Bytwerk, Randall, "[http://www.calvin.edu/academic/cas/gpa/index.htm Nazi and East German Propaganda Guide Page]. Calvin College.
* http://www.history.navy.mil/photos/arttopic/pstr-rec/n-recpst.htm US Navy recruiting posters archive]
* http://eisenhower.archives.gov/Research/Finding_Aids/F.html Tim Frank Collection of WWII Propaganda Leaflets, Dwight D. Eisenhower Presidential Library]
* http://www.oac.cdlib.org/findaid/ark:/13030/hb2000082j/?queryAmerican%2520War%2520Posters Finding Aid to American war posters from the First World War, circa 1914 – circa 1919], The Bancroft Library
* http://www.oac.cdlib.org/findaid/ark:/13030/hb5d5nb7dj/?queryAmerican%2520War%2520Posters Finding Aid to American war posters from the Second World War, circa 1940 – 1945], The Bancroft Library
* http://www.oac.cdlib.org/findaid/ark:/13030/hb7r29p557/?querySoviet%2520Posters Finding Aid to Soviet poster collection, circa 1939 – 1945], The Bancroft Library
* http://www.oac.cdlib.org/findaid/ark:/13030/hb0x0nb4fb/?queryCanadian%2520War%2520PostersFinding Aid to Canadian war posters from the First and Second World Wars, circa 1914 – 1945], The Bancroft Library
* http://www.oac.cdlib.org/findaid/ark:/13030/hb3f59p1f7/?queryFrench%2520War%2520PostersFinding Aid to French war posters from the First World War, circa 1914 – 1918], The Bancroft Library
* http://www.oac.cdlib.org/findaid/ark:/13030/hb6z09p5jx/?queryFrench%2520War%2520Posters Finding Aid to French war posters from the Second World War, circa 1939 – circa 1945], The Bancroft Library
* http://www.oac.cdlib.org/findaid/ark:/13030/hb6g5011c7/?queryBritish%2520War%2520Posters Finding Aid to British war posters from the First World War, circa 1914 – 1918], The Bancroft Library
* http://www.oac.cdlib.org/findaid/ark:/13030/hb4n39p2w2/?queryBritish%2520War%2520Posters Finding Aid to British war posters from the Second World War, circa 1939 – circa 1945], The Bancroft Library
* http://www.oac.cdlib.org/findaid/ark:/13030/hb7199p4w1/?queryBritish%2520War%2520Posters Finding Aid to British and British Commonwealth war posters from the Second World war, circa 1939 – circa 1945], The Bancroft Library
* http://www.oac.cdlib.org/findaid/ark:/13030/hb1f59p0xc/admin/?queryChinese%20News%20Service Finding Aid to Chinese News Service posters from the Second World War era, circa 1939 – circa 1945], The Bancroft Library
* http://www.oac.cdlib.org/findaid/ark:/13030/hb1779p0b8/?querySecond%2520World%2520War Finding Aid to the German poster and broadside collection, chiefly from the Nazi party during the Second World War, circa 1930 – circa 1945], The Bancroft Library
Category Mind control
Category Mind control methods
Category Promotion and marketing communications
Category Public opinion
Category Psychological warfare techniques
Category Revolutionary tactics